- At least 1-3% reduction of the ration final price
- 2-5% improvement in the profile of SID essential digestible amino acids in the ration
- 1-8% reduction in crude protein levels of the diet
Due to the fact that modern poultries are selected based on the improvement of feed conversion ratio and high growth rate, feed composition is considered as one of the important factors in determining the nutrition efficiency. The progress made in the growth rate and feed conversion in broiler chicks has been remarkable in recent years. The composition of the feed is related to the physiology of the bird, the nervous system and the nutrient requirements for growth, maintenance, and resistance to diseases, and the precise formulation of the feed intake in accordance with the requirements of the living organism plays an important role in achieving maximum genetic potential.
Protein is one of the main parts of the poultry nutrition, and providing adequate levels of protein in the feed is essential for supporting proper tissue growth, body maintenance, feather growth, bone health, immune system resistance, and ultimately, optimal performance of the living organism.
The protein sources used in poultry feed are numerous and diverse, but given the important role of poultry rearing in improving the feed security of the world's growing population, on the one hand, and increasing demand of breeders for poultry feed and lack of protein supply sources as well as cost considerations of these sources on the other hand, have made it inevitable to consider alternative soy protein supplements in poultry nutrition.
Application of the concept of ideal amino acids in ration formulation
The application of ideal amino acids concept is a solution to reduce the level of protein in the ration, and make us needless from considering the safety margins in the ration for protein. Low protein rations with a proper balance of essential amino acids that are formulated based on the real needs of broiler chicks, increase efficiency per area unit. Using the ideal protein concept in feed formulation is a simple and applicable strategy to prevent excessive increase in the level of crude protein, which will improve the metabolic function and economic efficiency in breeding flocks. The ideal protein concept and ideal amino acid pattern in the feed mean that essential and nonessential amino acids are supplied exactly on the basis of the requirements of the bird, and hence, there is no excessive amino acid nitrogen to be removed in the body. Studies have shown that 1% reduction in ration crude protein through improved amino acid formulations will lead to 10% reduction in nitrogen excretion in the feces. Also, the exact supply of bird needs to amino acids for growth and maintenance without deficiency or over feeding will increase the efficiency of nitrogen use.
Effects of feeding excessive amounts of soybean to poultry
Soybean meal is one of the main sources of protein in the feed. Since soybean meal protein digestibility is about 80%, 20% of the received and indigested protein by the bird is transferred to the hind gut, which is then fermented by pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli bacteria, Campylobacters and Salmonella, and produces toxic gases and causes diarrhea, which, in addition to reducing growth, will increase the cost of treatment and mortality. Protein with low digestibility in the ration will lead to the most problems at the time of exposure to heat stress and will result in the bird’s energy loss. Using high levels of soybean meal in the ration, due to the problems related to digestibility, taste, and anti-nutritional factors, has a negative effect on bird metabolism and affects on bird health. The main negative effects of using high levels of soybean meal in poultry rations are due to indigestible carbohydrates (oligosaccharides), low energy, low methionine, low digestibility of phosphorus, high amount of protein-digesting enzymes inhibitors, and high amounts of potassium. Reduction of feed intake is due to anti-nutritional factors or indigestible compounds. In addition, using high levels of soybean, which is one of the most important sources of protein in poultry feed, can lead to serious problems in poultry health due to the high levels of anti-nutritional factors. Anti-nutritional compounds in soybean prevent the absorption of zinc, iron, and other nutrients, and thus the birds are exposed to nutrient deficiencies.
Effects of soybean meal anti-nutritional factors on poultry body
- Increasing the adhesion of the substances digested in the digestive system and reducing the absorption of nutrients
- Creating digestive and metabolic problems, and reducing protein use and digestibility
- Losing endogenous amino acids and increasing the size and number of pancreatic cells
- Reducing feed conversion efficiency (increase in feed conversion ratio) and increasing carcass loss and mortality
- Reducing the feed intake due to anti-nutritional factors or indigestible ingredients
- Reducing the bioavailability of energy and protein
- Disruption in the digestive system health
- Reducing the growth efficiency and performance of poultry
Therefore, due to the problems made by using soy as a source of protein in poultry feed, it is necessary to limit its levels in the diet.
SID+ Nutri Gold Premix of Sepahan Daneh Co. as an appropriate alternative protein source to soybean meal, by providing appropriate protein levels for broiler chickens with soy alternative sources, provides the balance of digestible essential amino acids (SID) including methionine, lysine, threonine, arginine, tryptophan, glycine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine and other nutrients in different rearing periods as best possible; in addition to 1-8% reduction of the protein content in the ration which is associated with decreased metabolic pressure on the bird, it causes improved growth performance, immune system function, carcass quality and at least 1-3% reduction of the ration final cost and increased productivity in breeding units.