Nowadays production condition of cattle farms in Iran has been rising due to increasing attention to the nutrition, genetics and management issues. Therefore, the annual record of milk has exceeded 38 liters in some of the industrial husbandry of Isfahan Province and other provinces. Moreover, the record of dairy cows in some of the seasons has exceeded 40 liters. Milk production and its continuation in nutrition are based on the precise formulation of all rationed items and its proper nutritional management, genetic progress, and management issues. In order to achieve exact ration formulation, we need to provide for accurate information on the feed ingredients and the requirements of different groups of livestock. In addition, due to the fact that in most cattle farms, feed ingredients and concentrates (including soybean meal, cottonseed, fish meal, corn gluten meal, etc.) are purchased periodically; therefore, the quality and nutrient concentrations of these products are highly variable. Moreover, they can eventually affect the quality of concentrate production obtained from these products and finally can affect the quality of total mixed rations (TMR). Meanwhile, the high milk producing cows (the main milk production group) and transition cows are mostly negatively affected by the daily nutritional changes. Because the concentrate typically consists of at least 10 different feed ingredients and measuring every single concentrated contents is very costly and time-consuming; therefore, measuring the quality and quantity of feed that is thrown in the manger can be a management tool for better balanced rations, and improve the quality of livestock feed, it also impose lower cost on farmers.
In another section, corn silage, according to the consumption level (As-fed), constitute up to 60% of the total mixed rations. Therefore, variable silage quality (due to being purchased from different areas and the way it is being stored) can significantly affect the quality of the TMR.
Based on these two principles, Sepahan Daneh Co. in collaboration with its specialized laboratories intends to experimentally analyze total mixed rations, corn silage and protein sources as the most important parameters determining the quality of total mixed rations.
Analysis of TMR includes dry matter, size of the pieces, proximate analysis of (crude protein, NDF, ADF, crude fat, ash and non-fiber carbohydrates, rumen degradable protein, dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium, sodium (Na), potassium (K), chlorine (Cl), sulfur, etc.
Corn silage analysis includes profiles of fatty acids, lactic acid, pH, ethanol, dry matter, size of the pieces, proximate analysis of (crude protein, NDF, ADF, crude fat, ash and non-fiber carbohydrates) and mycotoxins (aflatoxins, zearalenone, etc.).
Analysis of protein sources (As fish meal, corn gluten meal, soybean meal and soybean) includes Rumen Undegradable Protein (RUP), Degradable Protein (RDP), Acid Detergent Insoluble Crude Protein (ADICP), dry matter and proximate analysis (Crude protein, NDF, ADF, Crude fat, ash and non-fiber carbohydrates).
Analysis of raw milk, including milk urea nitrogen (MUN), microbiological analysis of milk (types of bacteria in milk)
Analysis of metabolic testing of the herd includes glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids, cholesterol, triglycerides, total plasma protein, albumin, globulin, liver enzymes (AST and ALT), blood urea nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium.
Summary of experiments which can be carried out in specialized laboratories of Sepahan Daneh Parsian.
|Item No.||code Test||Description||Item No.||Test Code||Description|
|3||NDF||Neutral Detergent Fiber||33||Glu||Plasma glucose (serum)|
|4||ADF||Acid Detergent Fiber||34||NEFA||Plasma non esterified Fatty acid|
|5||CF||Crude Fiber||35||BHBA||Plasma Beta-Hydroxybutyrate (Serum)|
|6||Ash||Ash||36||TP||Total Plasma Protein (serum)|
|7||DMa||Dry Matter (typical)||37||BUN||Blood Urea Nitrogen (serum)|
|8||DMt||Dry Matter (distillation of toluene)||38||TG||Plasma Triglycerides (serum)|
|9||NDICP||Neutral Detergent Insoluble Crude Protein||39||AST||Plasma Aspartate Transferase (serum)|
|10||ADICP||Acid Detergent Insoluble Crude Protein||40||ALT||Plasma Alanine aminotransferase (serum)|
|11||Solp||Soluble Protein||41||Alb||Plasma albumin (serum)|
|12||NPN||Protein Nitrogen||42||Clos||Plasma cholesterol (serum)|
|13||RDP||Rumen Degradable Protein||43||Createnin||Plasma creatinine (serum)|
|14||RUP||Rumen Undegradable Protein||44||BCa||Blood Calcium (serum)|
|15||TVN||Total Volatile Nitrogen||45||BMg||Blood magnesium (serum)|
|16||BC||Buffering Capacity||46||BP||Blood Phosphorus (serum)|
|17||pH||PH||47||VFA||Volatile fatty acids|
|21||Mg||Magnesium||51||T2 Toxin||T-2 toxin|
|22||K||Potassium||52||DCAD||Dietary Cation- Anion Difference|
|23||Cl||Chlorine||53||TDS||Total dissolved solids|
|24||Na||Sodium||54||TSS||Total Solved Solids|
|25||S||Sulfur||55||Pwa||Phosphorus soluble in water and acid|
|26||Zn||Zinc||56||T Count||Determining the Total Count|
|27||Fe||Iron||57||Fungi & Yeast||Fungi and Yeast|
|28||Cu||Copper||58||E Coli||Determine the Escherichia coli|
|30||I||Iodine||60||a Bacillus||Bacillus count|