- It is possible to adjust the level of concentrate consumption during different rearing periods
- achieve the best economic performance
- Enjoying the best economic efficiency of growth (EEG)
- Providing amino acids such as threonine, arginine and valine- as growth limiting amino acids in broiler chickens- in the composition of Twin Concentrate leads to a reduction in the level of crude protein in diet coupled with an improvement in the process of body gain, feed conversion ratio and an increase in the production efficiency in broiler chickens.
- Free of any kind of animal protein sources
- Includes two concentrations; 2.5% and 5%
- The first holder of Iranian national standard certification for the production of all kinds of poultry feed concentrates
- The first holder of Grade A certificate for the production of poultry feeds issued by Iran Veterinary Organization
- The first holder of a license code for exporting products (IR) issued by Iran Veterinary Organization
Twin Concentrate, productivity increase coupled with growth pattern improvement
The most appropriate diet for broiler chickens is a diet that meets the poultry's body requirements during different rearing periods. As observed in the nutritional characteristics table of Ross broiler chickens (2014), nutrient requirements of broiler chickens with different target weights vary:
Body weight: 1.60> kg (3.50 pound)
Body weight: 1.70-2.40 kg (3.75-5.30 pound)
Body weight: 2.50-3.00 kg (5.50-6.60 pound)
Body weight: 3.10-3.50 kg (6.85-7.70 pound)
Body weight: 3.60-4.00 kg (7.95-8.80 pound)
Different target weights lead to different growth patterns in poultry. Thus, the level of body requirements to nutrients, vitamins, and minerals with respect to such growth patterns are different. Twin Concentrate is designed for providing all the poultry's requirements with different growth patterns.
The importance of Twin Concentrate:
Modern managerial methods in rearing broilers are to increase efficiency and productivity. Therefore, using a balanced feed in terms of all the nutrition is considered as one of the important factors to achieve EEG and promote productivity that affect the total productivity and total efficiency of growth.
Deploying advanced technologies to produce twin concentrate reduces the nutrients loss - incurred by staff error, mixing error, machine error, etc. - during production and the nutritional needs of the poultry are supplied desirably.
The performance and efficiency of feed in broiler chickens has a close relationship with the pattern of body growth that is influenced by the complex interaction of factors that are associated with poultry physiology, the amount of feed consumption, and required nutrient requirements for growth, maintenance, and resistance against diseases. Two concentrates, i.e., Twin 1 and Twin 2 are used simultaneously in Twin Concentrate. However, the level of consumption in each concentrate varies in line with the rearing period and different target weights.
The characteristics of Twin Concentrate rations:
Threonine, the third limiting amino acid, is used in most of the broiler chickens’ diets (Everett et al., 2010). Threonine influences the protein synthesis in body and also the metabolism of Serine and Glycine amino acids. Sufficient level of threonine is necessary for improving the efficiency of body growth and optimum immune system function. This amino acid impacts the synthesis of Mucin- large proteins that act as an obstacle against mucus infections attaching to the disease factors- stimulation, and multiplication of lymphocytes, plasma Gamma globulin increase, and eventually the prevention of the poultry immune system weakness.
Sufficient level of this amino acid in Twin Concentrate diets leads to optimum growth rate of broiler chickens, increased breast meat yield, reduced abdominal fat, improved carcass quality, enhanced immune system responses, and increased resistance of the poultry’s body.
Figure 1. The structure of threonine amino acid
Another advantage of Twin Concentrate and its diet is that the level of using crude protein sources is reduced. As an example, consumption of high levels of soybean that is regarded as one of the most important protein sources in poultry feed results in serious problems for poultry’s health. In addition to phytoestrogens, other anti-nutritional components in soybean prevents the absorption of zinc, iron and other nutrients and thus if the consumption is continued, it results in nutrient deficiency in poultry.
High levels of crude protein sources such as soybean, making hypersensitivity responses, lead to a reduction in the height of papilla and depth of crypts in intestine (Shiyan Qiao et al., 2003).
Further, these sources result in a change in the form and deformation of papilla in the mucus of the small intestine (100x magnification).
The function of Twin Concentrate
The findings of several studies have shown that a positive correlation exists between amino acid combinations and growth performance in broiler chickens. Given the short rearing period in broiler chickens, reaching economic efficiency of growth entails a balanced combination of nutrients for chickens’ growth.
New design of Twin Concentrates allows to manage diets according to different conditions. It accelerates the growth rate of poultry, plays an important role in making economic diets and reducing nutrition costs that encompass a large part of rearing costs.
As the crude protein sources (such as soybean meal and so on) is an expensive element of the poultry diets, the reduction of crude protein level during the rearing period as long as the optimum level of essential and growth limiting amino acids is not damaged has an effective role in reducing the feed costs (including 60-70 percent of rearing costs). Further, reduction of crude protein levels prevents environmental pollution that stem from an increase in nitrogen excretion with internal causes (Endogenous), as a result of using diets with high protein levels. Overall, balance of diets specifically for rearing has to be carried out in line with the amino acids and not the crude protein in the diet. This importance has been observed in Twin Concentrates using the criterion of digestible amino acids instead of total amino acids and reduction of crude protein level in diets which is accompanied by reduced costs and increased productivity for the farmers.
Disadvantages of using diets high in protein and its effects on growth performance
Using protein in diets has a pivotal importance in the growth of body tissues, growth of feathers, and improvement of poultry performance. Concerning the use of protein, the type and level of essential amino acids along with biological value of each amino acid are important to the provision of chickens’ needs. Protein sources, particularly, plant protein sources have low biological value for the poultry due to the lack of essential amino acids, especially lysine and methionine.
As an example, soybean that is one of the most important protein sources in poultry diet, in addition to its deficiency of essential amino acids such as lysine and methionine contains many growth inhibitors. Thus, using high levels of soybean for chickens is detrimental. These inhibitors incur a reduction in feed consumption and growth in poultry and often disrupt the balance of nutrients and feed efficiency.
Animal proteins such as meat or bone meal have better quality in terms of the combination of essential amino acids compared with plant-based proteins. However, they are more prone to being polluted by salmonella. Protein sources such as fish meal, because they contain tri methyl-amine, result in unpleasant smell and taste of the fish in the meat, chicken egg and gizzard erosion.
In addition, high levels of crude protein diets- even when the diet is balanced with respect to essential amino acids- leads to a reduction in growth, fat reserves, and increase in uric acid level of blood. High water consumption to excrete excessive uric acid leads to the wetness of litter. Furthermore, high levels of protein yield stress in animals that enlarged adrenals and high release of adrenocorticosteroids attest to this issue.
Today, using the concept of ideal protein in making diets with common poultry feeds seems a crucial topic. Since, in this method all amino acid requirements are adjusted based on the lysine amino acid and also provides the more accurate supply of amino acids in diets. Methionine, lysine, arginine, threonine and valine are among the most important growth limiting amino acids in broiler chickens. According to the recent advances in biotechnology sciences, it is possible to reduce the crude protein in diets without causing undesired effects on performance using pure amino acids and maintaining the ratio of essential to nonessential amino acids.