Enriched supplements for lactating dairy cows

مکمل های غنی شده گاو شیری

 Increased Productivity, Optimized performance, and Standard Quality

Advantages

  • Involves vitamin and mineral supplements for high producing, medium producing and low producing milk yield groups In the lactating cows

  • Reducing production of ammonia in the rumen, and increasing the flow of amino acids and peptides to the small intestine

  • Improving nitrogen balance in the body

  • Removing gram-positive bacteria in the rumen, and improving feed efficiency

  • Increasing propionate production in the rumen, and reduces negative energy balance

  • Preventing the incidence of metabolic diseases such as: ketosis, acidosis, and displaced abomasum

  • Improving metabolism of fatty acids

  • Reducing concentration of plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA)

  • Improving liver function in the metabolism of fatty acids

  • Increasing feed intake and improving metabolism of energy

  • Increasing level of immunoglobulins in blood plasma, and improving the immune system function

  • Improving hair and body coverage

  • Preventing hoof lesions, and reducing lameness incidence

  • Transferring iron ions from transferrin (found in plasma) to ferritin

  • Increasing antioxidant properties, and reducing formation of free radicals

  • Participating in the mechanism of oxidation and cell regeneration

  • Increasing the proliferation of lymphocytes, and boosting immune system function

  • Reducing detrimental effects caused by heat and cold stresses

Description

Recently, vitamins and minerals requirements of dairy cows have enhanced through change techniques on estimating requirement. On the other hand, high genetic potential of the present day's dairy cows have prompted researchers to update their previous reports.Vitamins and minerals requirements of dairy cows influenced by different factors, such as: age, stage of pregnancy, lactation period, etc. Currently, sub-clinical problems, such as: sub-clinical metabolic disorders, silent estrus, retained placenta, etc. are considered as a big challenge in dairy herds. It has been determined that trace minerals and vitamins are essential for an optimum response to the immune system are more primarily than the amount needed for growth and reproduction. Therefore, when the animal is exposed to micronutrient deficiencies, the immune system is the first part of the body which will be diminished. However, without being able to detect such deficiencies in the herd, sub-clinical deficiency will occur at the beginning, which causes big economic losses in dairy cattle. A strong immune system is a barrier to external factors, and is necessary for the proper functioning of other organs of the body. Due to their inflammatory responses and metabolic stresses, dairy cows which are in the transition period (from 21 days before until 21 days after delivery), are more sensitive to such deficiencies. Mineral and vitamin deficiencies could be due to incidence of metabolic disorders and infectious diseases (such as mastitis), reducing milk production and decreasing body condition score. Furthermore, due to the country's climatic conditions and low forage quality, using mineral and vitamin supplements would be inevitable for an optimal performance and production.

 

 

Monensin

Monensin is a polycarboxylic ionophore, which is added to the diet of dairy cattle as sodium salt. Ionophores alter the permeability of ions in the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria, and remove them selectively. Changes made by monensin in the microbial population of the rumen will result in higher energy efficiency and improved nitrogen balance, and will reduce the risk of bloating and lactic acidosis. Several studies on dairy cattle have showed positive effects of monensin on their metabolic system, health, milk production, and reproduction. Monensin improves energy metabolism, increases milk production and production efficiency, enhances milk composition, increases blood glucose, and reduces ketone bodies (acetoacetate and BHBA) and non‐esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in the blood, thus reducing the risk of metabolic diseases (such as: ketosis and displaced abomasum), reducing the incidence of mastitis, improving the growth and feed efficiency, and increasing the body condition score.

 figure 2- The effects of  monensin on rumen bacteria


Biotin

Biotin is considered among the vitamins of the B group. Biotin is a coenzyme which is essential for the activity of carboxylase enzymes such as: acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, propionyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, and pyruvate carboxylase, and for keratin synthesis, and is usually required to stimulate the differentiation of skin epidermal cells. No amount of biotin has been determined for dairy cattle in the U.S. National Research Council's tables of requirements (NRC, 2001). However, the vast majority of new research findings support using biotin for dairy cows. Clinical studies on dairy cattle (adult or growing), sheep, and beef cattle showed improve hoof health and body coverage in animals fed with 10 to 20 mg of biotin per day. It has also been shown that milk production increases by adding biotin to the ration of dairy cattle.

figure 3- The effect of  Biotin on hoof integrity 

figure 4- The effect of  Biotin on milk produvtion in Dairy cows 

 

Vitamin C

Vitamin C or ascorbic acid plays an important role in various mechanisms of oxidation and regeneration of living cells. This vitamin is essential for the normal metabolism of collagen, and plays an important role in the transfer of iron ions from transferrin (which is found in plasma) to ferritin which is considered as a source of iron. Vitamin C acts as a strong antioxidant in the cell. This vitamin is highly sensitive to light and oxidation conditions. If vitamin C is used as unprotected for ruminant, it will be degraded by rumen microorganisms. Hence, coated forms should be used in vitamin supplements.


Vitamin A

Vitamin A, as a fat-soluble vitamin being the most sensitive to oxidation, may be degraded to a large extent in the process of ruminal fermentation. Hence, it is necessary to contain this vitamin in a protected form in supplements. The coated form of vitamin A in vitamin supplements, increases the bioavailability to 90%, compared with its non-coated forms (less than 40% bioavailability).

 

The use of new techniques to estimate vitamin and mineral requirements has caused significant changes and enhancement in the nutritional requirements of dairy cattle. Nowadays, minerals and vitamins requirements published by National Research Council (NRC, 2001) will no longer meet the requirements of dairy cattle with high levels of milk production. The enriched mineral and vitamin supplements are formulated based on the latest data published by creditable research centers and universities in the world. The formulation of supplements has been done based on the amount of milk production in three groups: high-producing (40 to 48 kg of milk yield per day), moderate-producing (30 to 40 kg of milk yield per day), and low-producing group (20 to 30 kg of milk yield per day). Other vitamins and additives such as: vitamin C, biotin, and monensin have also been contained in the relevant supplements according to the amounts recommended by credible scientific references and depending on the production capacity, in order to reduce metabolic stresses. Using high-quality raw materials with the highest bioavailability, the accurate process of weighing and mixing, and selecting appropriate carriers with minimal impurities leads to significant positive responses on the performance of the production, reproduction, dairy cattle health, as well as the distinction of the enriched supplements. 

The special vitamins and additives in the enriched supplements can significantly reduce metabolic and oxidative stresses in dairy cattle at different stages of production. Hence, the effect of these supplements on health improvement, production, and reproduction will be perceptible.
The special vitamins and additives in the enriched supplements can significantly reduce metabolic and oxidative stresses in dairy cattle at different stages of production. Hence, the effect of these supplements on health improvement, production, and reproduction will be perceptible.

The concentration of nutrients per kg of the enriched vitamin and mineral Golden Sup for the groups of high producing, medium producing, and low producing milk yield in the lactating cows

The production process of Golden Supp supplements

Formulation

Supplements are formulated by livestock nutrition specialists, in the form of a research and development team, and based on the livestock updated information in accordance with the livestock requirements (depending on the type and physiological status of the livestock, the weather conditions of the nurturing area, amount of production, and nurturing systems). 

Raw Materials Selection

The best-quality raw materials with the highest bioavailability and minimal impurities (especially heavy elements) are used in the production of the supplements. Using reputable brands in the procurement of raw materials, and selecting appropriate carriers (in terms of particle size, and impurities) are the most important requirements in the production of livestock supplements. Quality Control Benefiting from specialized and advanced laboratories, Sepahan Daneh Parsian Commercial-Production Group makes it possible to control the quality of raw materials and products before getting into the market. Having specialized employees and advanced equipment, as well as relying on the standards of quality management system and ISO/IEC 17025, this laboratory complex is able to chemically analyze all raw materials before being used in the production line. In case of compliance with the requirements of the country's Food and Drug, Standard, and Veterinary Organizations, they will be used in the products. The amounts and concentration of vitamins are measured using the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique, which is based on separation due to different speeds in which molecules travel in the same settings and constant pressure. An atomic absorption spectrometer is used in order to determine the concentration of heavy metals found in mineral raw materials, carriers, and supplements. Nowadays, using this technique to measure the elements, is an acceptable method around the world, whose results are of high accuracy and precision. In addition to its capability of measuring the concentration of heavy elements, this technique can determine the concentrations of other common elements such as: calcium, sodium, magnesium, copper, iron, zinc, chromium, cobalt, manganese, etc. 

Raw Materials Storage 

In order to prevent the loss of nutrients existing in the raw materials, after the approval received by the quality control unit, their storage and maintenance will be carried out in fully controlled conditions according to the latest requirements of the good manufacturing practices (GMP).

Production Process:

Food items are weighed using a fully-automated microdosing system. After the initial mixing with the use of well-equipped micromixers and obtaining optimal uniformity, the combination of materials are brought to volume. Finally, being accurately weighed, the intended supplement is packed in a completely standard manner.

Final Test

After final quality control tests and complying with the product requirements of the quality plan, the manufactured supplements receive the license to be supplied to consumers.