- Adjust the energy balance of animal
- Improve reproductive performance
- Palatability and digestibility
- Anti-ketogenic and preventing ketosis and fatty liver
- Mixed used with concentrates or top-dress
The transition of dairy cows from dry period to after calving and the beginning of lactation is a critical period during which a proper nutritional management plays a determining role on health, reproduction and consequently on the successful performance of cows. Reduction in energy intake which happens as a result reduction of feed intake, and also increase in the nutritional products required for the growth and development of the embryo during the dry period and milk production after calving, put the animal in a state of negative energy balance (Figure 1).
In this case, cow is prone to many metabolic disorders such as ketosis, fatty liver, milk fever, displaced abomasum, and retained placenta.
Figure 1. Evaluation of energy balance and body weight changes during early lactation in dairy cows
Ketosis (Estonia) is a metabolic disorder associated with increased glucose demand in dairy cows which typically occurs 2 to 7 weeks after calving and results in economic losses such as increased healthcare costs, reduced milk yield, impaired reproductive performance and increased cull animals. High demand for glucose in early lactation for synthesis of lactose and milk fat (through the provision of NADPH), and also reduction in glucose absorption due to reduced feed intake can cause hypoglycemia. The metabolic system of the body to meet this energy deficit, shifts to body fat tissues as sources of energy; therefore, adipose tissue is mobilized in the form of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) (Figure 2). These fatty acids are mobilized to the liver where they are converted into ketone bodies, such as acetone, acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate through catabolism. In this case, symptoms of ketosis will be occurred. Furthermore, accumulation of fatty acids can lead to fatty liver and reduce liver potential for gluconeogenesis and as a result ketosis will be intensified.
Figure 2. The changes in glucose level and blood plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) before and after calving in dairy cows.
The mechanism of GL-Part 100
Propylene glycol is a glycogenic compound and by feeding it to the cows, part of it is metabolized to propionate in the rumen (Without any effects on rumen pH), but most are escaped from fermentation and absorbed and then reaches through the bloodstream to the liver and converted to lactate there in liver via lactaldehyde and then oxidation and ultimately lactate is converted to glucose through the gluconeogenesis. Glucose inhibits the adenylate cyclase activity in the fat tissue by changing the reactions of the body's metabolism and increase insulin secretion; subsequently, the lipolysis reduces. So the increase of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration in the blood (Figure 3), their accumulation in the liver and the production of ketone bodies will be prevented. All of these effects can eventually reduce the incidence of ketosis and fatty liver. Studies have shown that adding propylene glycol to the ration during the transition period have significantly increased propionate production in the rumen (compared with an increase of concentrate ratio in ration) and this blood results in more response of insulin in the blood.
Figure 3. The mechanism of GL-Part 100
Comparing with other glucose precursors
In addition to propylene glycol, glycerol and calcium propionate are two important precursors of glucose that are used as commercial products. According to studies, glycerol (as byproduct of biofuel production process) has the potential to become glucose but if its amounts in per kilogram of ration dry matter increase more than 2 to 4 grams, it can drastically increase the production of ketone bodies. In addition, it has reported that glycerol at level 5% causes synergistic effects of propylene glycol and calcium propionate to start the Krebs cycle. However, most of the existing products have more than the recommended range of glycerol amounts which can have adverse effects. In addition studies have shown that calcium propionate at high concentrations can impose its effects, while higher concentrations of this combination can decreases rumen contents pH and this can disrupt the fermentation process.
Figure 4. The effect of propylene glycol on non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB)
The effect of GL-Part 100® on dairy cows
GL-Part 100 ® contains glucose precursor combinations which are quickly converted to glucose in body during the process of gluconeogenesis; therefore, feeding it to cows 21 days before until 21 days after calving will improve the energy balance and maintain ideal blood glucose level in close up cows; as a result, reduce ketosis and fatty liver disorders.
Figure 5. The effect GL-part 100 on dairy cows
Effects on metabolic system
- Increase blood glucose level
- Increase in blood insulin level
- Reduce the level of NEFA
- Reduce the level of ketone bodies
- Improve the balance of sexual hormones and maintain the proper performance of the ovaries.
GL-Part 100® contains %60 effective substance of propylene glycol and in comparison with its similar products have the following benefits:
|Type of product||Glycerol||Effective substance||Propylene glycol||Per capita consumption (gr)|
System of quality and environmental control management
- Quality management and food safety system under the certificate of ISO 9001: 2000 and FAMI QS
- Quality assurance and safety of all products through the HACCP system
- Commitment to the fundamental objectives in the field of risk control and continuous improvement of manufacturing processes and compliance with environmental requirements
Formulation and analysis of raw materials
- Operational optimization based on standard tables of raw materials and standards of formulation of the products in accordance with the requirements of each product
- Use of qualified experts in the field of formulation, production, quality control and technical rules at the production line
- Quick response in order to achieve the technical and economic superiority, using collective wisdom and offering sincere services
- Interaction with customers to quickly respond to market needs
- Benefiting from the most up-to-date knowledge in the use of raw materials, including tests records and multiple sources of information
- Cooperation with accredited laboratories such as IDAC laboratory in France
- Permanent monitoring of the raw materials markets and relevant technological changes